Earth moon & sun
Whatever happens in the northern hemisphere the opposite happens in the south. We live in the northern hemisphere so any place that is on the northern hemisphere will experience the same season and any place that is on the southern hemisphere will experience the same season. Example: Winter in the northern hemisphere (United States and Paris) and summer in the southern hemisphere (Australia and Brazil).
Equinox - Equal day and equal night.
Solstice - Longest and shortest days.
Vernal - Spring
Autumnal - Fall or autumn
Winter solstice - December 21st the first day of winter, longer nights and shorter days and the sun is at its lowest point in the sky.
Vernal Equinox - March 21st the first day of spring, equal day and night hours.
Summer solstice - June 21 the first day of summer, longer day hours and shorter night hours and the sun is at it's highest point point in the sky.
Autumnal Equinox - September 21st the first day of fall, equal day and night hours.
Waxing - Light to the right
Waning - Light to the left
Crescent - Less than half
Gibbous - More than half
The moon does not light up, the moon shines due to the reflection from the sun.
Only half of the moon is ever lit.
The new moon is the moon that you do not see.
New Moon - Day 28 - 29 and 0 -1
Waxing Crescent - Day 2-6
First Quarter - Day 7 - 9
Waxing Gibbous - Day 10-13
Full Moon - Day 14-16
Waning Gibbous - Day 17-20
Third Quarter/Last Quarter - Day 21 -23
Waning Crescent - Day 24 -27